Sandy Soils – Sands Impact Validation Trial, Tempy 2020

Background

There is considerable interest in strategic deep tillage (e.g. deep ripping, spading) with or without agronomic amendments (fertilisers, organic matter) to overcome physical constraints and increase water and nutrient supply within the profile of Mallee sandy soils. To investigate the potential benefits of deep ripping and the inclusion of organic matter (OM), a replicated trial was established near Tempy in 2019.

Methods

Treatments
The trial comprised of five treatments to compare deep ripping only with inclusion plates and OM addition. All deep ripping treatments were implemented to a depth of 50cm with a tine spacing of 56cm. The OM used was a chicken litter compost blend, applied at 5t/ha (https://www.peatssoil.com.au), in the treatments listed in Table 1.

Management
The trial was sown to barley in both 2019 and 2020. Each season the trial received DAP S Z (16:17:0:8; 0.5%Zn) @ 62.5 kg/ha at seeding and 47 kg/ha of Ammonium Sulphate and a foliar application of copper, zinc and manganese was applied during tillering.


Depth cmTreatment
Control (undisturbed)
Deep ripping50with rigid shank (Tilco)
Deep ripping50with inclusion plate (Tilco) operating 150mm below soil surface
Deep ripping50with inclusion plate (Tilco) plus OM surface applied
Deep ripping50with OM deep placed behind the ripping shank
Table 1

Results

2020 Grain Yield

Deep ripping with inclusion plates and/or OM applied produced a significantly higher grain yield than the undisturbed control in 2020. The grain yield of the deep ripping only treatment was not significantly higher than the control in 2020.

Figure 1: Grain yield from the Tempy site in 2020

Cumulative Yield Benefit (2017-2020)

All treatments increased the quantity of grain grown in 2019 and 2020 by at least 1.5 t/ha, relative to the undisturbed control. However, there is no significant difference in cumulative grain yield between the ripping treatments.


Acknowledgement
This virtual field day has been developed as part of the Mallee Sustainable Farming (MSF) project:
“Facilitating enhanced knowledge sharing of Mallee sustainable farming practices”
This project is supported by the Mallee Catchment Management Authority (CMA), through funding from the Australian Government’s National Landcare Program.

The research featured in this virtual field day was completed as part of the Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC) funded project:
• Increasing production on sandy soils in the low-medium rainfall areas of the southern region.
The trials are a collaboration between Frontier Farming Systems and Mallee Sustainable Farming, CSIRO and UniSA.

Chickpea Varieties for the Northern Mallee, Pinnaroo


Trial Methodology

The trial was sown on the 15th of May.  Each variety was sown at the seeding rates specified in the table below.  The trial was sown with a tyned seeder fitted with paired row Root Boot.  Granulock Z was supplied as starter fertliser at 50 kg/ha.  All varieties were inoculated with a group N Tagteam Granular.  Simazine (200 g/ha), Diuron (200 g/ha) and Balance (80 g/ha) were applied as pre-emergent herbicides and were incorporated before sowing (IBS). 


Pinnaroo Chickpea Trial Results
Desi Chickpea types PBA Striker and PBA Slasher were the highest yielding varieties with grain yields of 2.8 t/ha
Both varieties were higher yielding than the large Kabuli chickpea varieties Kalkee and PBA Monarch
The striker also had a significantly higher grain yield than PBA Magnus but did not differ significantly from the other varieties


Acknowledgement
This virtual field day has been developed as part of the Mallee Sustainable Farming (MSF) project:
“Facilitating enhanced knowledge sharing of Mallee sustainable farming practices”
This project is supported by the Mallee Catchment Management Authority (CMA), through funding from the Australian Government’s National Landcare Program.

The research featured in this virtual field day was completed as part of the Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC) funded project:
• Understanding the implications of new traits on the adaption, crop physiology and management of pulses in the southern region (DAV00150)
This trial was managed by Frontier Farming Systems and Agricultural Victoria

Chickpea Varieties for the Northern Mallee, Werrimull


Trial Methodology

The trial was sown on the 4th of May.  Each variety was sown at the seeding rates specified in the table below.  The trial was sown with a tyned seeder fitted with paired row roots boots.  Granulock Z was supplied as starter fertliser at 50 kg/ha.  All varieties were inoculated with a group N Tagteam Granular. Simazine (200 g/ha), Diuron (200 g/ha) and Balance (80 g/ha) were applied as pre-emergent herbicides and were incorporated before sowing (IBS). 



Acknowledgement
This virtual field day has been developed as part of the Mallee Sustainable Farming (MSF) project:
“Facilitating enhanced knowledge sharing of Mallee sustainable farming practices”
This project is supported by the Mallee Catchment Management Authority (CMA), through funding from the Australian Government’s National Landcare Program.

The research featured in this virtual field day was completed as part of the Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC) funded project:
• Understanding the implications of new traits on the adaption, crop physiology and management of pulses in the southern region (DAV00150)
This trial was managed by Frontier Farming Systems and Agricultural Victoria

Deep Ripping Pulse Crops at Kooloonong 2020

Trial Methodology

Four separate trials were established to quantify the response of Lentil, Chickpea, Lupin and Faba bean varieties to deep ripping on a deep sandy soil. The trial site was located near Kooloonong in the Victorian Mallee.
Deep ripped treatments were ripped to a depth of 500 mm with using a Tilco A66 tynes spaced 56 cm apart.
All trials were sown on the 26th of April 2020.


Lentil

Lentil Variety

• PBA Bolt
• PBA Jumbo2
• PBA Hallmark XT
• PBA Highland XT
• PBA Kelpie XT (1721)
• GIA Leader (GIA1701)
• GIA 2005
• GIA 2001


Chickpea

Chickpea Variety

• PBA Striker
• PBA Slasher
• CBA Captain (CICA 1521)
• PBA Magnus (CICA 1352)
• PBA Royal
• Genesis ® 090
• Genesis ® Kalkee
• D13233


Lupin

Lupin Variety

• PBA Jurien
• PBA Bateman
• Mandelup
• Coyote


Faba bean

Faba bean variety

• PBA Samira
• PBA Marne
• PBA Bendoc
• AF12025


Acknowledgement
This virtual field day has been developed as part of the Mallee Sustainable Farming (MSF) project:
“Facilitating enhanced knowledge sharing of Mallee sustainable farming practices”
This project is supported by the Mallee Catchment Management Authority (CMA), through funding from the Australian Government’s National Landcare Program.

The research featured in this virtual field day was completed as part of the Grains Research and Development Corporation (GRDC) funded project:
• Understanding the implications of new traits on the adaption, crop physiology and management of pulses in the southern region (DAV00150)
This trial was managed by Frontier Farming Systems and Agricultural Victoria

Area Wide Weed Management Summer Weeds

Non-phenoxy options for use with optical sprayers in summer fallow

Location: Yatpool, Victoria.

Phenoxy herbicides are at high risk of causing off-site damage to susceptible crops such as horticulture, therefore Sunraysia farmers are extremely cautious when using such phenoxy herbicides which is to the detriment of weed control.

We have compared six products registered for use in optical sprayers to investigate alternative herbicides to phenoxy products. Treatments were applied at 100 L/Ha with very course droplets. The weed spectrum at this site was Sow Thistle, Lesser Sow Thistle and Paddy Melons.

Documented are 360 degree split-view tours of each treatment plot visualising a comparative of pre-spray in the left viewer and three weeks post spray in the right viewer. The tours are accompanied by still images captured of weeds at three weeks post-treatments for each plot.

This trial was established on Tuesday December 15, 2020.


TreatmentsActive Ingredients
Crucial 4L/haCRUCIAL @ 4.0 L/ha (600g/L glyphosate)
Biffo 10L/haBIFFO @ 10.0 L/ha (200g/L glufosinate-ammonium)
Amicide Advance 700 at 4.8L/haAMICIDE ADVANCE 700 @ 4.8 L/ha (700g/L 2,4-D present as the dimethylamine and monomethylamine salt)
Amitrole T at 8L/haAMITROLE T @ 8.0 L /ha ( 250g/L Amitrole + 220g/L Ammonium Thiocyanate)
Alliance 4L/haALLIANCE @ 4.0 L /ha (250g/L amitrole + 125g/L paraquat as dichloride)
Crucial 1.8L/ha + Terrad’or 40g + Banjo 1L/haCRUCIAL @ 1.8 L (600g/L glyphosate) + TERRAD’OR @ 40 g (700g/kg Tiafenacil) + BANJO @ 1.0L/ha adjuvant (725 g/L Methyl ester (canola oil))

Observations

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Optical-sprayer-products-1024x595.png

Crucial has shown to be the most effective treatment within the trial demonstrating fast brown out within 2 – 3 weeks.
Biffo has also displayed strong results, although a little bit of green at the base of the plants is visible in the still images below but mostly browned out after the 3 week post spray period.
Eventually Amicide Advance gave total weed control across the trial plot but took additional time to work than Crucial and Biffo treatments.
Generally poor level of control displayed within the Amitrole T. Suppression but no death of the paddy melons. Sow thistle in this plot is hard to differentiate from the control as the control as the control was maturing and browning out naturally.
Possible suffered from contact issues with the direction of travel clearly evident in sow thistle with brown down the front of the plant but some green plant remained on the back of the sow thistle. No control evident of paddy melon with this treatment.
Similarly, to Alliance where droplet contact point is visible but not total control of the whole plant. Hard to reconcile against the excellent job of crucial on its own, although half the rate applied.


Untreated Control


Treatment: Crucial 4L/ha

Crucial has shown to be the most effective treatment within the trial demonstrating fast brown out within 2 – 3 weeks.


Treatment: Biffo 10L/ha

Biffo has also displayed strong results, although a little bit of green at the base of the plants is visible in the still images below but mostly browned out after the 3 week post spray period.


Treatment: Amicide Advance 700 at 4.8L/ha

Eventually Amicide Advance gave total weed control across the trial plot but took additional time to work than Crucial and Biffo treatments.


Treatment: Amitrole T at 8L/ha

Generally poor level of control displayed within the Amitrole T. Suppression but no death of the paddy melons. Sow thistle in this plot is hard to differentiate from the control as the control as the control was maturing and browning out naturally.


Treatment: Alliance 4L/ha

Possible suffered from contact issues with the direction of travel clearly evident in sow thistle with brown down the front of the plant but some green plant remained on the back of the sow thistle. No control evident of paddy melon with this treatment.


Treatment: Crucial 1.8L/ha + Terrad’or 40g + Banjo 1L/ha

Similarly to Alliance where droplet contact point is visible but not total control of the whole plant. Hard to reconcile against the excellent job of crucial on its own, although half the rate applied.


Acknowledgments
This project is supported through funding from the Australian Government Department of Agriculture and Water Resources as part of its Rural R&D for Profit program and the Grains Research and Development Corporation and the Cotton Research and Development Corporation.

SAGIT Deep Ripping Trial Tour Pinnaroo

2020 Virtual Tour at Pinnaroo, South Australia.

Deep ripping to enhance production on Mallee sandy soils.

Mallee Sustainable Farming with funding from the South Australian Grain industry trust (or SAGIT) are investigating methods to improve the deep ripping process conducted by Frontier Farming Systems


SAGIT Deep Ripping Trial Tour Woodleigh

Deep ripping to enhance production on Mallee sandy soils.

Mallee Sustainable Farming with funding from the South Australian Grain industry trust (or SAGIT) are investigating methods to improve the deep ripping process conducted by Frontier Farming Systems

2020 Virtual Tour at Woodleigh, South Australia.


Depth 30cm. Tyne Spacing 0.5m

Depth 30cm. Tyne Spacing 0.75m

Depth 30cm. Tyne Spacing 1m

Depth 45cm. Tyne Spacing 0.5m

Depth 45cm. Tyne Spacing 0.75m

Depth 45cm. Tyne Spacing 1m

Depth 45cm + Wings. Tyne Spacing 0.5m

Depth 45cm + Wings. Tyne Spacing 0.75m

Depth 45cm + Wings. Tyne Spacing 1m

Depth 60cm. Tyne Spacing 0.5m

Depth 60cm. Tyne Spacing 0.75m

Depth 60cm. Tyne Spacing 1m

SAGIT Deep Ripping Trial Flyby


2020 Trial Site Overview Flyby at Woodleigh

     

Area Wide Weed Management Trial Spraying

Yatpool trial site

Herbicide spray application using Modern Optical Spot Sprat Technology (OSST) applying alternative knockdown treatments registered by Nufarm.


Acknowledgments
This project is supported through funding from the Australian Government Department of Agriculture and Water Resources as part of its Rural R&D for Profit program and the Grains Research and Development Corporation and the Cotton Research and Development Corporation.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is msf-nufarm-1024x187.png
This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is frontier_farming_systems_logo_fullcolour-1-1024x288.jpg

Area Wide Management for Fleabane

This project is supported through funding from the Australian Government Department of Agriculture as part of its Rural R&D for Profit program and the Grains Research and Development Corporation and the Cotton Research and Development Corporation.

Split screen virtual tours displaying Fleabane pre treatment and two weeks post treatment for comparison


Observations

University of Adelaide, Professor of weed management Chris Preston gave the following recommendations for spraying weeds at a recent Dried Fruits Australia Crop walk in November.

• Expensive treatments work but don’t need to be used all the time. They can be used strategically to stop seed set particularly with ryegrass.
• Consider a cover crop in the interrow to compete with weeds that will help to reduce the build up of weed seeds in the system.
• Small weeds are easier to manage than large weeds – spray early to target small weeds even if it means one more control may be required. This will help with long term weed management.
• Get your application right – make sure water rates are not too high so as not to dilute the surfactant that is sprayed with glyphosate as diluting the surfactant will give a poorer result.
• If you can’t reduce the water rate consider increasing the surfactant in the mix to improve the efficacy of glyphosate.


Fleabane

Untreated


Glyphosate 540: 2 L/ha


Glyphosate + Cavalier -75 ml/ha


Glyphosate + Chateau 700 g/ha


Paratrooper 2.4 L


ParaTrooper 2.4 L + Chateau 700 g/ha


Basta: 5 L/ha


Basta + Chateau 700 g/ha


Acknowledgments
This project is supported through funding from the Australian Government Department of Agriculture and Water Resources as part of its Rural R&D for Profit program and the Grains Research and Development Corporation and the Cotton Research and Development Corporation.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is msf-nufarm-1024x187.png
This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is frontier_farming_systems_logo_fullcolour-1-1024x288.jpg

Area Wide Management for Ryegrass

This project is supported through funding from the Australian Government Department of Agriculture as part of its Rural R&D for Profit program and the Grains Research and Development Corporation and the Cotton Research and Development Corporation.

Split screen virtual tours displaying Ryegrass pre treatment and two weeks post treatment for comparison


Observations

University of Adelaide, Professor of weed management Chris Preston gave the following recommendations for spraying weeds at a recent Dried Fruits Australia Crop walk in November.

• Expensive treatments work but don’t need to be used all the time. They can be used strategically to stop seed set particularly with ryegrass.
• Consider a cover crop in the interrow to compete with weeds that will help to reduce the build up of weed seeds in the system.
• Small weeds are easier to manage than large weeds – spray early to target small weeds even if it means one more control may be required. This will help with long term weed management.
• Get your application right – make sure water rates are not too high so as not to dilute the surfactant that is sprayed with glyphosate as diluting the surfactant will give a poorer result.
• If you can’t reduce the water rate consider increasing the surfactant in the mix to improve the efficacy of glyphosate.


Ryegrass

Untreated


Glyphosate 540: 2 L/ha


Glyphosate + Cavalier -75 ml/ha


Glyphosate + Chateau 700 g/ha


ParaTrooper 2.4 L


ParaTrooper 2.4 L + Chateau 700 g/ha


Basta: 5 L/ha


Basta + Chateau 700 g/ha


Acknowledgments
This project is supported through funding from the Australian Government Department of Agriculture and Water Resources as part of its Rural R&D for Profit program and the Grains Research and Development Corporation and the Cotton Research and Development Corporation.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is msf-nufarm-1024x187.png
This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is frontier_farming_systems_logo_fullcolour-1-1024x288.jpg